Contamination risk of raw drinking water caused by PFOA sources along a river reach in south-western Finland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Researchers

  • Maiju Happonen
  • Harri Koivusalo

  • Olli Malve
  • Noora Perkola
  • Janne Juntunen
  • Timo Huttula

Research units

  • Finnish Environment Institute

Abstract

Transport of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was simulated in the beginning of River Kokeenjoki in Finland using one-dimensional SOBEK river model. River Kokemaenjoki is used as a raw water source for an artificial groundwater recharge plant, and the raw water intake plant is located near the downstream end of the model application area. Measured surface water and wastewater concentrations were used to determine the PFOA input to the river and to evaluate the simulation results. The maximum computed PFOA concentrations in the river at the location of the raw water intake plant during the simulation period Dec. 1, 2011-Feb. 16, 2014 were 0.92 ng/l and 3.12 ng/l for two alternative modeling scenarios. These concentration values are 2.3% and 7.8%, respectively, of the 40 ng/l guideline threshold value for drinking water. The current annual median and maximum PFOA loads to the river were calculated to be 3.9 kg/year and 10 kg/year respectively. According to the simulation results, the PFOA load would need to rise to a level of 57 kg/year for the 40 ng/l guideline value to be exceeded in riverwater at the rawwater intake plant during a dry season. It is thus unlikely that PFOA concentration in raw water would reach the guideline valuewithout the appearance of newPFOA sources. The communal wastewater treatment plants in the study area caused on average 11% of the total PFOA load. This raises a concern about the origin of the remaining 89% of the PFOA load and the related risk factors. (C) 2015 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.

Details

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)74-82
Number of pages9
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume541
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • PFOA, Wastewater treatment plant, Contamination, Raw drinking water, River modeling, Risk assessment, PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID PFOA, ARTIFICIAL SWEETENER ACESULFAME, WASTE-WATER, PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS, PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS, SURFACE WATERS, SULFONATE PFOS, TOKYO BAY, JAPAN, FATE

ID: 1519120