Conformal High-Aspect-Ratio Solid Electrolyte Thin Films for Li-Ion Batteries by Atomic Layer Deposition

Milad Madadi, Mari Heikkinen, Anish Philip, Maarit Karppinen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
34 Downloads (Pure)


Lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) is a state-of-the-art solid electrolyte material for thin-film microbatteries. These applications require conformal thin films on challenging 3D surface structures, and among the advanced thin-film deposition techniques, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is believed to stand out in terms of producing appreciably conformal thin films. Here we quantify the conformality (i.e., the evenness of deposition) of thin ALD-grown LiPON films using lateral high-aspect-ratio test structures. Two different lithium precursors, lithium tert-butoxide (LiOtBu) and lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide (Li-HMDS), were investigated in combination with diethyl phosphoramidate as the source of oxygen, phosphorus, and nitrogen. The results indicate that the film growth proceeded significantly deeper into the 3D cavities for the films grown from LiOtBu, while the Li-HMDS-based films grew more evenly initially, right after the cavity entrances. These observations can be explained by differences in the precursor diffusion and reactivity. The results open possibilities for the use of LiPON as a solid electrolyte in batteries with high-surface-area electrodes. This could enable faster charging and discharging as well as the use of thin-film technology in fabricating thin-film electrodes of meaningful charge capacity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1574–1580
JournalACS Applied Electronic Materials
Issue number3
Early online date8 Mar 2024
Publication statusPublished - 26 Mar 2024
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Li-ion battery
  • LiPON
  • atomic layer deposition
  • conformality
  • solid electrolyte
  • thin film


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