Xiaolei Wang*, Xiao Zhi Gao, Kai Zenger

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterScientific


    In the harmony search (HS) method, there are only three distinguishing factors: harmony memory considering rate (HMCR), pitch adjusting rate (PAR), and HS memory (HM), used to control the quality of solutions and balance the intensification and diversification during the search process. These three operators determine the attractive properties of the HS including structure simplicity and fast convergence, which also promote the research of improved HS algorithms and fusion strategies with other nature-inspired computational (NIC) approaches. However, the consideration of balance intensification and diversification is inevitably a challenging problem in the hybrid NIC algorithms that possesses the advantages of robustness, efficiency, and accuracy, and these objectives usually conflict each other. Additionally, the ‘no free lunch (NFL)’ theorem should also be taken into account when handling various optimization problems in engineering. This chapter gives a concise summary of the book and points out the further research trend of the HS method.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationSpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology
    Number of pages2
    Publication statusPublished - 2015
    MoE publication typeB2 Book section

    Publication series

    NameSpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology
    ISSN (Print)2191-530X
    ISSN (Electronic)2191-5318


    • Harmony search method
    • Hybrid harmony search methods
    • No free lunch
    • Optimization applications


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