Competitive role of nitrogen functionalities of N doped GO and sensitizing effect of Bi2O3 QDs on TiO2 for water remediation

Saima Noor, Shamaila Sajjad*, Sajjad Ahmed Khan Leghari, Cristina Flox, Saeed Ahmad

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The promising solar irradiated photocatalyst by pairing of bismuth oxide quantum dots (BQDs) doped TiO2 with nitrogen doped graphene oxide (NGO) nanocomposite (NGO/BQDs-TiO2) was fabricated. It was used for degradation of organic pollutants like 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and stable dyes, i.e. Rhodamine B and Congo Red. X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile of NGO showed reduction in oxygenic functional groups and restoring of graphitic crystal structure. The characteristic diffraction peaks of TiO2 and its composites showed crystalline anatase TiO2. Morphological images represent spherical shaped TiO2 evenly covered with BQDs spread on NGO sheet. The surface linkages of NO−O−Ti, C−O−Ti, Bi−O−Ti and vibrational modes are observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman studies. BQDs and NGO modified TiO2 results into red shifting in visible region as studied in diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). NGO and BQDs in TiO2 are linked with defect centers which reduced the recombination of free charge carriers by quenching of photoluminescence (PL) intensities. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that no peak related to C−O in NGO/BQDs-TiO2 is observed. This indicated that doping of nitrogen into GO has reduced some oxygen functional groups. Nitrogen functionalities in NGO and photosensitizing effect of BQDs in ternary composite have improved photocatalytic activity against organic pollutants. Intermediate byproducts during photo degradation process of 2,4-DCP were studied through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Study of radical scavengers indicated that O2·− has significant role for degradation of 2,4-DCP. Our investigations propose that fabricated nanohybrid architecture has potential for degradation of environmental pollutions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107-119
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • 2,4-Dichlorophenol
  • BiO quantum dots
  • Nitrogen defects
  • Nitrogen doped graphene oxide
  • TiO
  • Water treatment


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