Comparison of the energy and environmental impact by integrating a H2 vehicle and an electric vehicle into a zero-energy building

Sunliang Cao*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


The boundary extension of a zero-energy building to integrate a new energy vehicle will facilitate the realization of the target set by the EU 2050 roadmap. In this study, either a hydrogen vehicle (HV) or an electric vehicle (EV) is integrated into a renewable-supported building system with appropriate control strategies. The focused variables in this study are renewable energy capacities, vehicle system options, extents to utilize vehicle storages for domestic purposes, and the Excess REe-HW recharging strategies. The analysing aspects include the energy and environmental impact as well as the energy matching and the grid interactions. The results show that the annual net-zero energy/emission balance can be met by a 16, 12, and 12 kW rated wind turbine, or by a 195.8, 160.2, and 142.4 m2 PV, for the building with the HV, the EV and no vehicle (NV), respectively. The building with the HV will be more demanding in meeting the balance due to the less efficient HV system than that with the EV. Moreover, better matching for the zero-energy system can be achieved by relieving the condition to discharge the vehicle storages for domestic usages and by using the Excess REe-HW recharging strategy. However, their negative effect will be a slight increase in the annual net-energy consumption, due to an increased loss from both the HV/EV integrated system and the thermal storage.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberVolume 123
Pages (from-to)153-173
Number of pages21
JournalEnergy Conversion and Management
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Electric vehicle
  • Grid interactions
  • Hydrogen vehicle
  • Matching analysis
  • Zero energy building
  • Zero energy system

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