Comparison of Indirect CO2-emissions of Different Renewable Transport Fuels

Henrik Holmberg, Sari Siitonen, Timo Laukkanen, Mari Tuomaala, Tuomas Niskanen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    7 Citations (Scopus)
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    The European Union's goal is to increase the share of renewable energy sources to 20 per cent and that of liquid biofuels for transport to at least 10 per cent by 2020. Liquid biofuels for transport are, for example, biodiesel and bioethanol. Their use is not assumed to increase CO2-emissions in the atmosphere. However, production processes of transport fuels need energy causing indirect CO2-emissions. To evaluate the environmental burden of these biofuels it is important to consider indirect CO2-emissions in analyses, too. This study defines indirect CO2-emissions for Digestion process, Bioethanol process, FT-process (Fischer-Tropsch-process) and Bio-SNG-process and compares their environmental burden.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)19-26
    JournalEnergy Procedia
    Publication statusPublished - 2015
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed
    EventConference of Environmental and Climate Technologies - Riga, Latvia
    Duration: 14 Oct 201416 Oct 2014


    • biodiesel
    • bioethanol
    • biomethane
    • bio-SNG-process
    • digestion
    • Fischer-Tropsch-process


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