Comparison of deep learning segmentation and multigrader-annotated mandibular canals of multicenter CBCT scans

Jorma Järnstedt, Jaakko Sahlsten, Joel Jaskari, Kimmo Kaski*, Helena Mehtonen, Ziyuan Lin, Ari Hietanen, Osku Sundqvist, Vesa Varjonen, Vesa Mattila, Sangsom Prapayasotok, Sakarat Nalampang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
18 Downloads (Pure)


Deep learning approach has been demonstrated to automatically segment the bilateral mandibular canals from CBCT scans, yet systematic studies of its clinical and technical validation are scarce. To validate the mandibular canal localization accuracy of a deep learning system (DLS) we trained it with 982 CBCT scans and evaluated using 150 scans of five scanners from clinical workflow patients of European and Southeast Asian Institutes, annotated by four radiologists. The interobserver variability was compared to the variability between the DLS and the radiologists. In addition, the generalisation of DLS to CBCT scans from scanners not used in the training data was examined to evaluate its out-of-distribution performance. The DLS had a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) with lower variability to the radiologists with 0.74 mm than the interobserver variability of 0.77 mm and generalised to new devices with 0.63 mm, 0.67 mm and 0.87 mm (p < 0.001). For the radiologists’ consensus segmentation, used as a gold standard, the DLS showed a symmetric mean curve distance of 0.39 mm, which was statistically significantly different (p < 0.001) compared to those of the individual radiologists with values of 0.62 mm, 0.55 mm, 0.47 mm, and 0.42 mm. These results show promise towards integration of DLS into clinical workflow to reduce time-consuming and labour-intensive manual tasks in implantology.

Original languageEnglish
Article number18598
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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