Ultracold gases are of great interest in modern physics. The main reason is that in the systems of ultracold gases the parameters can be easily tuned, thus they can be used as a testing ground for various quantum many-body theories. Interesting macroscopic quantum effects have been observed in the ultracold gas systems, for instance Bose-Einstein condensation. In this thesis, theoretical knowledge of ultracold gases is extended. A summary of the methods used in this thesis is given, including a detailed description of the density response theory and the time-evolving block decimation (TEBD) algorithm. Collective excitations of an ultracold gas in a three-dimensional (3D) spherically symmetric trap are studied in detail in publications II and III. As a result, several collective modes are discovered such as a low energy Higgs-type mode, a second sound-like mode, and a strong mode resembling the Leggett mode. Using the TEBD algorithm, physics of a polaron in a one-dimensional (1D) lattice, and the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state in 1D are studied in publications IV and I, respectively. In publication I a method to detect the FFLO phase is suggested, namely by the observation of the change in the double occupancy after a lattice depth modulation. Publication IV compares a variational ansatz and the TEBD simulations and finds an excellent agreement, indicating that the variational ansatz can be used to describe the system for a certain range of interactions.
|Translated title of the contribution||Collective excitations in ultracold Fermi gases|
|Publication status||Published - 2014|
|MoE publication type||G5 Doctoral dissertation (article)|
- Fermi gas
- cold gases
- collision dynamics
- collective excitations