Chitin Nanopaper from Mushroom Extract: Natural Composite of Nanofibers and Glucan from a Single Biobased Source

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


  • Wan Mohd Fazli Wan Nawawi
  • Koon Yang Lee
  • Eero Kontturi
  • Richard J. Murphy
  • Alexander Bismarck

Research units

  • Imperial College London
  • International Islamic University Malaysia
  • University of Vienna
  • University of Surrey


An isolation method with mild mechanical agitation and no acidic extraction step from a mushroom substrate resulted in chitin nanofibers (ChNFs) with large shares of retained glucans (50-65%). The subsequent chitin nanopapers exhibited exceptionally high tensile strengths of >200 MPa and moduli of ca. 7 GPa, which were largely attributed to the preserved glucans in the mixture, imparting a composite nature to the nanopapers. The isolation method for ChNFs is notably different from the conventional process with crustacean chitin sources that do not incorporate glucans and where an acidic extraction step for the removal of minerals must always be included.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6492-6496
Number of pages5
JournalACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • Alternative biomass, Chitin nanofibers, Mechanical properties, Mild extraction, Nanopaper, Nonwoven networks

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