Chemical potentials and activities in metallurgical processes

Michael Gasik, M. I. Gasik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


The analysis of the correct calculation of chemical potentials of components in metallurgical processes is provided and the importance of the proper selection of the reference state is highlighted. This has direct implication on correct calculation of activity which must follow the principles of thermodynamics and be suitable for practical application in pyro- and hydrometallurgical processes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)39-43
Number of pages5
JournalAdvances in Electrometallurgy
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • thermodynamics
  • Gibbs energy
  • chemical potential
  • solutions
  • activity
  • melts


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