This review focuses on recent non‐invasive or minimally invasive magnetic resonance (MR) approaches to study atherothrombosis. The potential benefits of combining diverse metabolic information obtained by the variety of MR techniques from tissues in vivo and ex vivo and from body fluids in vitro are also briefly discussed. A well established methodology is available for lipoprotein subclass quantification from plasma by 1H MR spectroscopy providing information for assessing the long‐term risk of atherosclerosis. Multi‐contrast MR imaging in vivo relying on endogenous contrast allows partial characterization of components in atherothrombotic plaques. The use of exogenous contrast agents in MR angiography enhances blood‐tissue contrast and provides functional information on plaque metabolism, improving plaque characterization and assessment of plaque vulnerability by MR imaging. Recent applications of molecular targeted MR imaging have revealed novel opportunities for specific early detection of atherothrombotic processes, such as angiogenesis and accumulation of macrophages. Currently, MR imaging and spectroscopy can produce such metabolic in vivo and in vitro information that in combination could facilitate the screening, identification and follow‐up of cardiovascularly vulnerable patients in research settings. The recent developments imply that in the near future MR techniques will be part of clinical protocols for individual diagnostics in atherothrombosis.
|Journal||Annals of Medicine|
|Publication status||Published - 2006|
|MoE publication type||A1 Journal article-refereed|
- magnetic resonance imaging
- magnetic resonance spectroscopy
- molecular diagnostic techniques
- molecular probe techniques