Chaos in terminology related to material recycling in paper industry

Ilpo Ervasti

Research output: ThesisLicenciate's thesis


The objective of this thesis is to increase understanding of the multiple uses of different terms related to paper industry material recycling. Use of terms related to material recycling in paper board industry is in chaos. Generally accepted, uniform definitions of terms are missing. Material recycling rate cannot be calculated univocally due to great number of different definitions. Often, different terms are being used for the same matter; and often, the same term is being used to refer to different matters. Additionally, at present there is no reliable framework in use to describe paper industry material flows unequivocally. Consequently for example it is not possible to compare geographical regions with each other reliably. There is a need to develop a new, uniform framework and corresponding terminology to describe and quantify paper industry material flows. This new framework could help to better describe, understand, and manage regional and global paper industry material flows uniformly. A univocal framework and uniform terminology is necessary in order to estimate the future raw material demand and in order to compare different regions with each other. When developing a new framework for paper industry material flows, special attention should be paid to material recycling, which plays an increasingly important role in paper manufacturing.In this thesis a comprehensive review of extant terms and frameworks was carried out. An extensive table of terms as well as a list of existing frameworks is presented. Different definitions of terms used in the literature and selected frameworks are compared. Preliminary suggestions for the development of a uniform recycling framework and clarifying the recycling terminology are provided.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationLicentiate's degree
Awarding Institution
  • Aalto University
  • Kauranen, Ilkka, Supervising Professor
  • Vasara, Petri, Thesis Advisor, External person
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeG3 Licentiate thesis


  • Recovered paper
  • Waste paper
  • Paper recycling
  • Recycling rate
  • Recovery
  • Terminology
  • Paper industry

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