The nature of intrinsic defects in ZnO films grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy was studied by positron annihilation and photoluminescence spectroscopy techniques. The supply of Zn and O during the film synthesis was varied by applying different growth temperatures (325–485 °C), affecting decomposition of the metal organic precursors. The microscopic identification of vacancy complexes was derived from a systematic variation in the defect balance in accordance with Zn/O supply trends.
Venkatachalapathy, V., Galeckas, A., Zubiaga, A., Tuomisto, F., & Kuznetsov, A. Y. (2010). Changing vacancy balance in ZnO by tuning synthesis between zinc/oxygen lean conditions. Journal of Applied Physics, 108(4), 1-3. . https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3462394