CFD Modeling of Multiphase Flow in an SKS Furnace: The Effect of Tuyere Arrangements

Kezhou Song, Ari Jokilaakso*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
51 Downloads (Pure)


The emerging bottom blown copper smelting (SKS) technology has attracted growing interest since it came into production. To further reveal the agitation behavior inside the bath and optimize the variable parameters, CFD simulation was conducted on a scaled down SKS furnace model with different tuyere arrangements. The Multi-Fluid VOF model was used for the first time in SKS furnace simulation and the simulated results show good agreement with an experimental water model reported in the literature, in terms of plume shape and surface wave. It was found that a low velocity region would appear on the opposite side of the bubble plume and persisted for a long time. To enhance the agitation in the low velocity region and reduce the dead zone area, an arrangement with tuyeres installed at each side of the furnace was recommended. Results suggested that a smaller tuyere angle difference would help to strengthen the agitation in the system. However, further investigation indicated that the difference in tuyere angle between two rows of tuyeres should be limited within a certain range to balance the requirements of higher agitation efficiency and longer lining refractory lifespan.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1772–1788
Number of pages17
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number3
Early online date12 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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