Cellulosic-Based Conductive Hydrogels for Electro-Active Tissues: A Review Summary

Esubalew Kasaw Gebeyehu, Xiaofeng Sui, Biruk Fentahun Adamu, Kura Alemayehu, Melkie Getnet Tadesse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

The use of hydrogel in tissue engineering is not entirely new. In the last six decades, researchers have used hydrogel to develop artificial organs and tissue for the diagnosis of real-life problems and research purposes. Trial and error dominated the first forty years of tissue generation. Nowadays, biomaterials research is constantly progressing in the direction of new materials with expanded capabilities to better meet the current needs. Knowing the biological phenomenon at the interaction among materials and the human body has promoted the development of smart bio-inert and bio-active polymeric materials or devices as a result of vigorous and consistent research. Hydrogels can be tailored to contain properties such as softness, porosity, adequate strength, biodegradability, and a suitable surface for adhesion; they are ideal for use as a scaffold to provide support for cellular attachment and control tissue shapes. Perhaps electrical conductivity in hydrogel polymers promotes the interaction of electrical signals among artificial neurons and simulates the physiological microenvironment of electro-active tissues. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art related to the complete process of conductive hydrogel manufacturing for tissue engineering from cellulosic materials. The essential properties required by hydrogel for electro-active-tissue regeneration are explored after a short overview of hydrogel classification and manufacturing methods. To prepare hydrogel from cellulose, the base material, cellulose, is first synthesized from plant fibers or generated from bacteria, fungi, or animals. The natural chemistry of cellulose and its derivatives in the fabrication of hydrogels is briefly discussed. Thereafter, the current scenario and latest developments of cellulose-based conductive hydrogels for tissue engineering are reviewed with an illustration from the literature. Finally, the pro and cons of conductive hydrogels for tissue engineering are indicated.
Original languageEnglish
Article number140
JournalGels
Volume8
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • conductive hydrogel
  • cellulose
  • tissue engineering
  • hydrogel design and characterization
  • electro-active tissues

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