Cellulose Nanofibrils: From Strong Materials to Bioactive Surfaces

Yanxia Zhang, Tiina Nypelö, Carlos Salas, Julio Arboleda, Ingrid C. Hoeger, Orlando J. Rojas

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    107 Citations (Scopus)


    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), also known as nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC), are an advanced biomaterial made mainly from renewable forest and agricultural resources that have demonstrated exceptional performance in composites. In addition, they have been utilized in barrier coatings, food, transparent flexible films and other applications. Research on CNF has advanced rapidly over the last decade and several of the fundamental questions about production and characterization of CNF have been addressed. An interesting shift in focus in the recent reported literature indicates increased efforts aimed at taking advantage of the unique properties of CNF. This includes its nanoscale dimensions, high surface area, unique morphology, low density and mechanical strength. In addition, CNF can be easily (chemically) modified and is readily available, renewable, and biodegradable. These facts are expected to materialize in a more widespread use of CNF. However, there is no clear indication of the most promising avenues for CNF deployment in commercial products. This review attempts to illustrate some exciting opportunities for CNF, specifically, in the development of aerogels, composites, bioactive materials and inorganic/organic hybrid materials.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)195-211
    Number of pages17
    JournalJournal of Renewable Materials
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - Jul 2013
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Cellulose nanofibrils
    • CNF
    • nanofibrillar cellulose
    • NFC
    • cellulose materials
    • aerogels
    • hydrogels
    • composites
    • bioactive surfaces
    • inorganic/organic hybrids

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