Cellulose Nanofibril Film as a Piezoelectric Sensor Material

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Research units

  • University of Oulu
  • Tampere University of Technology


Self-standing films (45 μm thick) of native cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) were synthesized and characterized for their piezoelectric response. The surface and the microstructure of the films were evaluated with image-based analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The measured dielectric properties of the films at 1 kHz and 9.97 GHz indicated a relative permittivity of 3.47 and 3.38 and loss tangent tan δ of 0.011 and 0.071, respectively. The films were used as functional sensing layers in piezoelectric sensors with corresponding sensitivities of 4.7-6.4 pC/N in ambient conditions. This piezoelectric response is expected to increase remarkably upon film polarization resulting from the alignment of the cellulose crystalline regions in the film. The CNF sensor characteristics were compared with those of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as reference piezoelectric polymer. Overall, the results suggest that CNF is a suitable precursor material for disposable piezoelectric sensors, actuators, or energy generators with potential applications in the fields of electronics, sensors, and biomedical diagnostics.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15607-15614
Number of pages8
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 22 Jun 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • cellulose nanofibrils, image-based analysis, nanocellulose films, piezoelectric sensor materials, relative permittivity, sensitivity measurement

ID: 6598592