Causal signal transmission by quantum fields. VI: The Lorentz condition and Maxwell's equations for fluctuations of the electromagnetic field

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


  • L. I. Plimak
  • S. Stenholm

Research units

  • Ulm University
  • Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light
  • Royal Institute of Technology


The general structure of electromagnetic interactions in the so-called response representation of quantum electrodynamics(QED)is analysed. A formal solution to the general quantum problem of the electromagnetic fieldinteracting with matter is found. Independently, a formal solution to the corresponding problem in classical stochastic electrodynamics(CSED)is constructed. CSED and QED differ only in the replacement of stochastic averages of c-number fields and currents by time-normal averages of the corresponding Heisenbergoperators. All relations of QED connecting quantum field to quantum current lack Planck's constant, and thus coincide with their counterparts in CSED. In Feynman's terms, one encounters complete disentanglement of the potential and current operators in response picture.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)207-249
Number of pages43
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics, Phase-space methods, Quantum field theory, Quantum fluctuations, Quantum-statistical response problem

ID: 13371326