Carbon Sequestration Capacity of Stabilized Soft Clays with Recycled Binders

Bruk Belay Dejenie, Ammavajjala Sesha Sai Raghuram*, Leena Korkiala-Tanttu, Juha Forsman, Henry Gustavsson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This study estimates the CO2 sequestration capacity of Malmi clay stabilized with various recycled binders tested in laboratory conditions. Carbonation experiments were performed on stabilized samples using an autoclave and a carbonation chamber. Results revealed that the rate of carbonation differs significantly when carbonation is performed using a carbonation chamber or an autoclave. After 1 day in room temperature, the carbonated-stabilized samples were kept in the carbonation chamber for 13 days or in the autoclave for 5 days. Additionally, the reference samples were cured for 14 and 28 days to estimate the effect of CO2 sequestration capacity on curing time. Further, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to measure the CO2 intake. The findings indicated that the CO2 sequestration capacity of carbonated-stabilized soil for the recycled binders ranged from 2.8 % to 4.1 % of dry mass of the mixture. The CO2 intake was found to be 4.1 %, 3.5 %, 3.0 %, and 2.8 %/dry mass of the mixture for cement type I (CEMI), cement type III (CEMIII), GTC (gypsum + slaked lime + CEMIII), and biomass fly ash + CEMII (BFA + CEMII) stabilized clay, respectively. Ultimately, GTC binder was found to have the greatest potential to be carbon negative. The present study shows that it may be potential to create stabilization technique, which can be carbon negative especially by using recycled binder materials.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2024
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • CO sequestration
  • recycled binder
  • stabilized soft clay
  • sustainable deep mixing
  • thermogravimeter


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