BRDF measurement of understory vegetation in pine forests: Dwarf shrubs, lichen, and moss

Jouni I. Peltoniemi, Sanna Kaasalainen, Jyri Näränen, Miina Rautiainen, Pauline Stenberg, Heikki Smolander, Sampo Smolander, Pekka Voipio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

89 Citations (Scopus)


The spectral and directional reflection properties of pine forest understory in Suonenjoki, Finland were measured using a newly developed transportable field goniospectrometer under direct sunlight or plant lamp. The samples represent the most typical types in Finnish forests. Large differences between species were found. Wax-leaved shrubs such as lingonberry and blueberry proved to be strong forward scatterers, whereas lichen and soft-leaved dwarf shrubs such as heather were strong backscatterers. The measured moss showed both forward and backscattering features. There were variations among the samples of the same species, but many typical features appeared consistent and reproducible. Both "pure" and mixed samples were measured, the latter showing smoother behavior than the former, that is, the strongest forward and backward features are downscaled. The results provide a starting point for an empirical understory model and a basis for development and validation of a theoretical model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)343-354
Number of pages12
JournalRemote Sensing of Environment
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2005
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • BRDF
  • Forest
  • Goniometry
  • Radiative transfer
  • Remote sensing
  • Sprectum
  • Understory

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