Bose–Einstein condensation in a plasmonic lattice

Tommi K. Hakala, Antti J. Moilanen, Aaro I. Väkeväinen, Rui Guo, Jani Petri Martikainen, Konstantinos S. Daskalakis, Heikki T. Rekola, Aleksi Julku, Päivi Törmä*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

90 Citations (Scopus)


Bose–Einstein condensation is a remarkable manifestation of quantum statistics and macroscopic quantum coherence. Superconductivity and superfluidity have their origin in Bose–Einstein condensation. Ultracold quantum gases have provided condensates close to the original ideas of Bose and Einstein, while condensation of polaritons and magnons has introduced novel concepts of non-equilibrium condensation. Here, we demonstrate a Bose–Einstein condensate of surface plasmon polaritons in lattice modes of a metal nanoparticle array. Interaction of the nanoscale-confined surface plasmons with a room-temperature bath of dye molecules enables thermalization and condensation in picoseconds. The ultrafast thermalization and condensation dynamics are revealed by an experiment that exploits thermalization under propagation and the open-cavity character of the system. A crossover from a Bose–Einstein condensate to usual lasing is realized by tailoring the band structure. This new condensate of surface plasmon lattice excitations has promise for future technologies due to its ultrafast, room-temperature and on-chip nature.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-6
Number of pages6
JournalNature Physics
Issue number7
Early online date16 Apr 2018
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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  • OPLD: Organic Polariton Laser Diode

    Daskalakis, K.


    Project: EU: Framework programmes funding

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