Bonding of ceramics to silver-coated titanium—A combined theoretical and experimental study

Vesa Vuorinen*, Reijo Kouhia, Mauno Könönen, Jorma K. Kivilahti

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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It would be very beneficial to have a method for joining of ceramics to titanium reliably. Although several techniques have been developed and tested to prevent extensive interfacial chemical reactions in titanium-ceramic systems, the main problem of the inherent brittleness of interfaces was still unsolved. To overcome this problem also in dental applications, we decided to make use of an interlayer material that needs to meet the following requirements: First, it has to be biocompatible, second, it should not melt below the bonding temperatures, and third, it should not react too strongly with titanium, so that its plasticity will be maintained. Considering possible material options only the metals: gold, platinum, palladium, and silver, fulfill the first and second requirements. To find out—without an extensive experimental testing program—which of the four metals fulfills the third requirement best, the combined thermodynamic and reaction kinetic modeling was employed to evaluate how many and how thick reaction layers are formed between the interlayer metals and titanium. With the help of theoretical modeling, it was shown that silver fulfills the last requirement best. However, before starting to test experimentally the effect of the silver layer on the mechanical integrity of dental ceramic/Ag/Ti joints it was decided to make use of mechanical analysis of the three-point bending test, the result of which indicated that the silver layer increases significantly the bond strength of the joints. This result encouraged us to develop a new technique for plating silver on titanium. Subsequently, we executed numerous three-point bending tests, which demonstrated that silver-plated titanium-ceramic joints are much stronger than conventional titanium-ceramic joints. Hence, it can be concluded that the combined thermodynamic, reaction kinetic, and mechanical modeling method can also be a very valuable tool in medical research and development work.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere35407
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2024
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • bonding strength
  • chemical reactivity
  • intermetallics
  • silver plating on titanium
  • titanium-ceramic interfaces


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