The ability of Halomonas maura to bioprecipitate carbonate and sulphate crystals in solid media at different manganese concentrations has been demonstrated in this study for the first time. The precipitated minerals were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The precipitated minerals were different based on the manganese concentration present in the medium and the incubation time. In the absence of manganese, H. maura formed pseudokutnahorite crystals; in the presence of manganese, the concentration in the culture medium determined the precipitation carbonates, such as rhodochrosite and dolomites. However, in the presence of low concentrations of manganese chloride (MnCl2) (5 g/l), kutnohorite crystals were also formed. Finally, when H. maura was grown in the presence of manganese, small amounts of sulphate crystals (such as bassanite and gypsum) were detected. Our study of the precipitated minerals showed an active role of H. maura in the biomineralisation process, but the geochemical conditions, and the manganese concentrations in particular, were clearly influential.
- Crystal formation
- Halomonas maura