Objective: We present a benchmarking protocol for quantitatively comparing emerging on-scalp magnetoencephalography (MEG) sensor technologies to their counterparts in state-of-the-art MEG systems. Methods: As a means of validation, we compare a high-critical-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (high T-c SQUID) with the low-T-c SQUIDs of an Elekta Neuromag TRIUX system in MEG recordings of auditory and somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) on one human subject. Results: We measure the expected signal gain for the auditory-evoked fields (deeper sources) and notice some unfamiliar features in the on-scalp sensor-based recordings of SEFs (shallower sources). Conclusion: The experimental results serve as a proof of principle for the benchmarking protocol. This approach is straightforward, general to various on-scalp MEG sensors, and convenient to use on human subjects. The unexpected features in the SEFs suggest on-scalp MEG sensors may reveal information about neuromagnetic sources that is otherwise difficult to extract from state-of-the-art MEG recordings. Significance: As the first systematically established on-scalp MEG benchmarking protocol, magnetic sensor developers can employ this method to prove the utility of their technology in MEG recordings. Further exploration of the SEFs with on-scalp MEG sensors may reveal unique information about their sources.
- Auditory and somatosensory evoked fields (AEF and SEF)
- high-temperature superconductors
- magnetoencephalography (MEG)
- superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID)