Behaviour-Conditioned Policies for Cooperative Reinforcement Learning Tasks

Antti Keurulainen*, Isak Westerlund, Ariel Kwiatkowski, Samuel Kaski, Alexander Ilin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The cooperation among AI systems, and between AI systems and humans is becoming increasingly important. In various real-world tasks, an agent needs to cooperate with unknown partner agent types. This requires the agent to assess the behaviour of the partner agent during a cooperative task and to adjust its own policy to support the cooperation. Deep reinforcement learning models can be trained to deliver the required functionality but are known to suffer from sample inefficiency and slow learning. However, adapting to a partner agent behaviour during the ongoing task requires ability to assess the partner agent type quickly. We suggest a method, where we synthetically produce populations of agents with different behavioural patterns together with ground truth data of their behaviour, and use this data for training a meta-learner. We additionally suggest an agent architecture, which can efficiently use the generated data and gain the meta-learning capability. When an agent is equipped with such a meta-learner, it is capable of quickly adapting to cooperation with unknown partner agent types in new situations. This method can be used to automatically form a task distribution for meta-training from emerging behaviours that arise, for example, through self-play.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationArtificial Neural Networks and Machine Learning – ICANN 2021 - 30th International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, Proceedings
EditorsIgor Farkaš, Paolo Masulli, Sebastian Otte, Stefan Wermter
Number of pages12
ISBN (Print)9783030863791
Publication statusPublished - 2021
MoE publication typeA4 Conference publication
EventInternational Conference on Artificial Neural Networks - Virtual, Online
Duration: 14 Sept 202117 Sept 2021
Conference number: 30

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume12894 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


ConferenceInternational Conference on Artificial Neural Networks
Abbreviated titleICANN
CityVirtual, Online


  • Agent behaviour
  • Cooperative AI
  • Deep reinforcement learning


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