BAIST-viitemalli julkista arvoa tuottavaan digitaalisen palvelun käyttäjäkeskeiseen suunnitteluun

Translated title of the contribution: BAIST-viitemalli julkista arvoa tuottavaan digitaalisen palvelun käyttäjäkeskeiseen suunnitteluun

Heli Kautonen

Research output: ThesisDoctoral ThesisCollection of Articles


As the digitalisation in our society advances, it is becoming imperative that more public service producers understand how end-users' needs can be met in the development of information systems. Researchers in the fields of human-computer interaction and participative design provide evidence-based knowledge and tested principles to be used in the design of interactive information systems. In Finland, there seems to be a gap between existing knowledge and public sector service developers. Furthermore, there is a multitude of theories, models, and guidelines, but it may be difficult for a public service organisation to get a solid overview and make choices that lead to a desired outcome. This dissertation focuses on performance management of user-centred design in the development of public digital services. My aim was to find answers to a question: What should a public organisation do if it wishes to improve user-centredness of its services. I approached the phenomenon from the viewpoints of New Public Management and Public Value Management. To construct the research frameworks, I combined Moore's Strategic Public Management model with theories of temporality, value production and user-centric design in organisations. The frameworks are grounded on the idea that user-centred design generates Public Value. In this dissertation, I present a qualitative research that uses content analysis methodology to answer my research question: What is the strategic entity of user-centred design for the public digital services comprised of? Empirical evidence arises from five academic articles published in 2014–2018. These articles describe research on information systems development in Finnish libraries, archives and museums, and, especially, on user-centred design of the Finna service. The main outcome of the research is a BAIST Reference Model for user-centred design in public digital services. The model builds on existing knowledge about interactive systems' design capability maturity models, as well as on design processes and activities performed in organisations. The model links the elements of Benefits (B), Activities (A) and Investments (I) with the element of Stakeholders (S), which represents the various stakeholders who participate in design activities. As a complement to previous conceptualisations, this model includes the element of Time (T), which represents how time defines and is defined in the design work. The BAIST Reference Model suggests a new overview of the strategic management of user-centred design. In the public sector, design leaders and managers can use the model as a tool in their strategic decision making. In addition, the information on Finna's design can be used as reference in designing other public digital services.
Translated title of the contributionBAIST-viitemalli julkista arvoa tuottavaan digitaalisen palvelun käyttäjäkeskeiseen suunnitteluun
Original languageFinnish
QualificationDoctor's degree
Awarding Institution
  • Aalto University
  • Nieminen, Marko, Supervising Professor
Print ISBNs978-952-60-8373-5
Electronic ISBNs978-952-60-8374-2
Publication statusPublished - 2019
MoE publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (article)


  • käyttäjäkeskeinen suunnittelu
  • julkinen digitaalinen palvelu
  • julkinen arvo


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