Atomic layer engineering of Er-ion distribution in highly doped Er:Al2O3 for photoluminescence enhancement

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Atomic layer engineering of Er-ion distribution in highly doped Er:Al2O3 for photoluminescence enhancement. / Rönn, John; Karvonen, Lasse; Kauppinen, Christoffer; Pyymaki Perros, Alexander ; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Lipsanen, Harri; Säynätjoki, Antti; Sun, Zhipei.

In: ACS Photonics, Vol. 3, No. 11, 16.11.2016, p. 2040–2048.

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@article{1b87ac5351ca45c7a0d2dde84e91146f,
title = "Atomic layer engineering of Er-ion distribution in highly doped Er:Al2O3 for photoluminescence enhancement",
abstract = "For the past decade, erbium-doped integrated waveguide amplifiers and lasers have shown excellent potential for on-chip amplification and generation of light at the important telecommunication wavelength regime. However, Er-based integrated devices can only provide small gain per unit length due to the severe energy-transfer between the Er-ions at high concentration levels. Therefore, active ion concentrations have been limited to <1{\%} levels in these devices for optimal performance. Here, we show an efficient and practical way of fabricating Er-doped Al2O3 with Er-concentration as high as ∼3.5{\%} before concentration quenching starts to limit the C-band emission in our material. The Er-doped Al2O3 was fabricated by engineering the distribution of the Er-ions in Al2O3 with the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. By choosing a proper precursor for the fabrication of Er2O3, the steric hindrance effect was utilized to increase the distance between the Er-ions in the lateral direction. In the vertical direction, the distance was controlled by introducing subsequent Al2O3 layers between Er2O3 layers. This atomic scale control of the Er-ion distribution allows us to enhance the photoluminescence of our Er:Al2O3 material by up to 16 times stronger when compared to the case where the Er-concentration is ∼0.6{\%}. In addition, long lifetime of approximately 5 ms is preserved in the Er-ions even at such high concentration levels. Thus, our optimized ALD process shows very promising potential for the deposition of optical gain media for integrated photonics structures.",
keywords = "erbium, rare-earth ions, atomic layer deposition, photoluminescence, optical amplifier, integrated photonics",
author = "John R{\"o}nn and Lasse Karvonen and Christoffer Kauppinen and {Pyymaki Perros}, Alexander and Nasser Peyghambarian and Harri Lipsanen and Antti S{\"a}yn{\"a}tjoki and Zhipei Sun",
year = "2016",
month = "11",
day = "16",
doi = "10.1021/acsphotonics.6b00283",
language = "English",
volume = "3",
pages = "2040–2048",
journal = "ACS Photonics",
issn = "2330-4022",
number = "11",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Atomic layer engineering of Er-ion distribution in highly doped Er:Al2O3 for photoluminescence enhancement

AU - Rönn, John

AU - Karvonen, Lasse

AU - Kauppinen, Christoffer

AU - Pyymaki Perros, Alexander

AU - Peyghambarian, Nasser

AU - Lipsanen, Harri

AU - Säynätjoki, Antti

AU - Sun, Zhipei

PY - 2016/11/16

Y1 - 2016/11/16

N2 - For the past decade, erbium-doped integrated waveguide amplifiers and lasers have shown excellent potential for on-chip amplification and generation of light at the important telecommunication wavelength regime. However, Er-based integrated devices can only provide small gain per unit length due to the severe energy-transfer between the Er-ions at high concentration levels. Therefore, active ion concentrations have been limited to <1% levels in these devices for optimal performance. Here, we show an efficient and practical way of fabricating Er-doped Al2O3 with Er-concentration as high as ∼3.5% before concentration quenching starts to limit the C-band emission in our material. The Er-doped Al2O3 was fabricated by engineering the distribution of the Er-ions in Al2O3 with the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. By choosing a proper precursor for the fabrication of Er2O3, the steric hindrance effect was utilized to increase the distance between the Er-ions in the lateral direction. In the vertical direction, the distance was controlled by introducing subsequent Al2O3 layers between Er2O3 layers. This atomic scale control of the Er-ion distribution allows us to enhance the photoluminescence of our Er:Al2O3 material by up to 16 times stronger when compared to the case where the Er-concentration is ∼0.6%. In addition, long lifetime of approximately 5 ms is preserved in the Er-ions even at such high concentration levels. Thus, our optimized ALD process shows very promising potential for the deposition of optical gain media for integrated photonics structures.

AB - For the past decade, erbium-doped integrated waveguide amplifiers and lasers have shown excellent potential for on-chip amplification and generation of light at the important telecommunication wavelength regime. However, Er-based integrated devices can only provide small gain per unit length due to the severe energy-transfer between the Er-ions at high concentration levels. Therefore, active ion concentrations have been limited to <1% levels in these devices for optimal performance. Here, we show an efficient and practical way of fabricating Er-doped Al2O3 with Er-concentration as high as ∼3.5% before concentration quenching starts to limit the C-band emission in our material. The Er-doped Al2O3 was fabricated by engineering the distribution of the Er-ions in Al2O3 with the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. By choosing a proper precursor for the fabrication of Er2O3, the steric hindrance effect was utilized to increase the distance between the Er-ions in the lateral direction. In the vertical direction, the distance was controlled by introducing subsequent Al2O3 layers between Er2O3 layers. This atomic scale control of the Er-ion distribution allows us to enhance the photoluminescence of our Er:Al2O3 material by up to 16 times stronger when compared to the case where the Er-concentration is ∼0.6%. In addition, long lifetime of approximately 5 ms is preserved in the Er-ions even at such high concentration levels. Thus, our optimized ALD process shows very promising potential for the deposition of optical gain media for integrated photonics structures.

KW - erbium

KW - rare-earth ions

KW - atomic layer deposition

KW - photoluminescence

KW - optical amplifier

KW - integrated photonics

U2 - 10.1021/acsphotonics.6b00283

DO - 10.1021/acsphotonics.6b00283

M3 - Article

VL - 3

SP - 2040

EP - 2048

JO - ACS Photonics

T2 - ACS Photonics

JF - ACS Photonics

SN - 2330-4022

IS - 11

ER -

ID: 9516906