Atomic layer deposition of metals: Precursors and film growth

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Atomic layer deposition of metals : Precursors and film growth. / Hagen, D. J.; Pemble, M. E.; Karppinen, M.

In: APPLIED PHYSICS REVIEWS, Vol. 6, No. 4, 5087759, 01.12.2019.

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@article{e670a838733940ea84106f2dc06c3b88,
title = "Atomic layer deposition of metals: Precursors and film growth",
abstract = "The coating of complex three-dimensional structures with ultrathin metal films is of great interest for current technical applications, particularly in microelectronics, as well as for basic research on, for example, photonics or spintronics. While atomic layer deposition (ALD) has become a well-established fabrication method for thin oxide films on such geometries, attempts to develop ALD processes for elemental metal films have met with only mixed success. This can be understood by the lack of suitable precursors for many metals, the difficulty in reducing the metal cations to the metallic state, and the nature of metals as such, in particular their tendency to agglomerate to isolated islands. In this review, we will discuss these three challenges in detail for the example of Cu, for which ALD has been studied extensively due to its importance for microelectronic fabrication processes. Moreover, we give a comprehensive overview over metal ALD, ranging from a short summary of the early research on the ALD of the platinoid metals, which has meanwhile become an established technology, to very recent developments that target the ALD of electropositive metals. Finally, we discuss the most important applications of metal ALD.",
author = "Hagen, {D. J.} and Pemble, {M. E.} and M. Karppinen",
year = "2019",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1063/1.5087759",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
journal = "APPLIED PHYSICS REVIEWS",
issn = "1931-9401",
publisher = "American Institute of Physics",
number = "4",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Atomic layer deposition of metals

T2 - Precursors and film growth

AU - Hagen, D. J.

AU - Pemble, M. E.

AU - Karppinen, M.

PY - 2019/12/1

Y1 - 2019/12/1

N2 - The coating of complex three-dimensional structures with ultrathin metal films is of great interest for current technical applications, particularly in microelectronics, as well as for basic research on, for example, photonics or spintronics. While atomic layer deposition (ALD) has become a well-established fabrication method for thin oxide films on such geometries, attempts to develop ALD processes for elemental metal films have met with only mixed success. This can be understood by the lack of suitable precursors for many metals, the difficulty in reducing the metal cations to the metallic state, and the nature of metals as such, in particular their tendency to agglomerate to isolated islands. In this review, we will discuss these three challenges in detail for the example of Cu, for which ALD has been studied extensively due to its importance for microelectronic fabrication processes. Moreover, we give a comprehensive overview over metal ALD, ranging from a short summary of the early research on the ALD of the platinoid metals, which has meanwhile become an established technology, to very recent developments that target the ALD of electropositive metals. Finally, we discuss the most important applications of metal ALD.

AB - The coating of complex three-dimensional structures with ultrathin metal films is of great interest for current technical applications, particularly in microelectronics, as well as for basic research on, for example, photonics or spintronics. While atomic layer deposition (ALD) has become a well-established fabrication method for thin oxide films on such geometries, attempts to develop ALD processes for elemental metal films have met with only mixed success. This can be understood by the lack of suitable precursors for many metals, the difficulty in reducing the metal cations to the metallic state, and the nature of metals as such, in particular their tendency to agglomerate to isolated islands. In this review, we will discuss these three challenges in detail for the example of Cu, for which ALD has been studied extensively due to its importance for microelectronic fabrication processes. Moreover, we give a comprehensive overview over metal ALD, ranging from a short summary of the early research on the ALD of the platinoid metals, which has meanwhile become an established technology, to very recent developments that target the ALD of electropositive metals. Finally, we discuss the most important applications of metal ALD.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85074757342&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1063/1.5087759

DO - 10.1063/1.5087759

M3 - Review Article

AN - SCOPUS:85074757342

VL - 6

JO - APPLIED PHYSICS REVIEWS

JF - APPLIED PHYSICS REVIEWS

SN - 1931-9401

IS - 4

M1 - 5087759

ER -

ID: 38814040