Assessment of the energetic efficiency of friction stir welding/processing

Patrick L. Inácio*, Francisco B. Ferreira, Pedro Vilaça, J. P. Oliveira, Telmo G. Santos

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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This paper scrutinizes and goes beyond previously published results on the analysis of the energy flow during friction stir welding/processing (FSW/P). An in-depth scientific method was used to assess the individual energetic contribution arising from the main components within the FSW/P system. This investigation was performed during FSW/P of AA7075 with different tool rotations and travel speeds. The main contributors to energy losses during the FSW/P process include the FSW/P tool, anvil, unprocessed base material, and the surrounding environment. It was found that only about 25 % of the total energy is effectively used to perform the welding/processing, while the remaining energy dissipates through heat into the tooling and clamping system. Additionally, around 6 % of the energy is lost towards the base material, forming the heat-affected zone (HAZ). These results suggest that proper selection of the anvil material offers a promising opportunity to enhance effective energy efficiency, considering that approximately 60 % of the total energy input is lost through this component. Addressing this substantial energy loss becomes essential for achieving a more energetically sustainable industrial application of the FSW/P process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)298-308
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Manufacturing Processes
Publication statusPublished - 6 Oct 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Aluminium
  • Efficiency
  • Energy
  • Friction stir Processing (FSP)
  • Friction Stir Welding (FSW)


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