Ascorbic acid-loaded polyvinyl alcohol/cellulose nanofibril hydrogels as precursors for 3D printed materials

Hossein Bani Asadi, Zahraalsadat Madani, Rubina Ajdary, Orlando Rojas Gaona, Jukka Seppälä*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)
199 Downloads (Pure)


We proposed a simple method to process hydrogels containing polyvinyl alcohol and cellulose nanofibrils (PVA/CNF) to prepare volumetric architectures by direct ink writing (DIW). The presence of CNF in the aqueous PVA suspensions conferred rheology profiles that were suitable for extrusion and solidification in pre-designed shapes. The viscoelastic behavior of the hybrid inks enabled precise control on processability and shape retention, for instance, as demonstrated in multilayered lattice structures of high fidelity. After lyophilization, the obtained 3D-printed hydrogels presented a very high porosity, with open and interconnected pores, allowing a high-water uptake capacity (up to 1600%). The mechanical strength of the composite 3D-printed materials matched those of soft tissues, opening opportunities for skin applications. As such, drug-loaded samples revealed a controlled and efficient delivery of an antioxidant (ascorbic acid) in PBS buffer media at 23 °C (~80% for 8 h). Altogether, PVA/CNF hydrogels were introduced as suitable precursors of 3D-lattice geometries with excellent physical and mechanical characteristics.
Original languageEnglish
Article number112424
Number of pages12
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering C
Early online date11 Sept 2021
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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