Approaching Net Zero Energy Housing Through Integrated EV

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

61 Citations (Scopus)


This paper conceptualizes and demonstrates an intelligent energy management system for a single-family house, considering electric vehicle (EV) as an active component of the building’s energy system, including bidirectional energy exchange with the house and the grid. Thus, an energy demand model is proposed for net-zero energy building (NZEB) definitions to represent personal mobility in the building’s energy balance. Therefore, including EV in building’s energy supply increases the chances of getting closer to an NZEB. A mixed-integer linear (MILP) optimization scheme is developed to address the energy management problem related to the aforementioned energy balance model. The proposed system is assessed under two different heating scenarios, district heating (DH) and ground source heat pump (GSHP). Results indicate that both the annual imported and exported energy can be reduced in the DH scenario by 30% and 50%, respectively and for GSHP scenario by 5% in imported and 60% in exported energy. In addition, energy-matching indices are improved with the optimized energy exchange options. Furthermore, the proposed system results in annual cost savings up to 38% for DH and 11% for GSHP scenarios due to the household owner energy costs reduction, which in turn, provides some refund over the extra initial investments.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)534-542
Number of pages9
JournalSustainable Cities and Society
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jan 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Net Zero Energy Buildings
  • E-mobility
  • Housing energy management system
  • Vehicle to home
  • V2H
  • NZEB


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