The importance and non-trivial properties of superconductor normal metal interfaces were discovered by Alexander Fyodorovich Andreev more than 60 years ago. Only much later, these hybrids have found wide interest in applications such as thermometry and refrigeration, electrical metrology, and quantum circuit engineering. Here we discuss the central properties of such interfaces and describe some of the most prominent and recent applications of them.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Low Temperature Physics
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 22 May 2024
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Andreev reflection
  • Metrology
  • NIS junctions
  • Refrigeration
  • SN interface
  • Thermometry


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