Analysis of Uplink and Downlink Spatial Channel Reciprocity When Using Asymmetric Transceiver

Peize Zhang*, Pekka Kyosti, Mar Francis De Guzman, Katsuyuki Haneda, Aarno Parssinen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


A novel millimeter-wave massive MIMO system using asymmetric transceiver, i.e., unequal number of transmitting (Tx) and receiving (Rx) radio frequency chains, is expected to maintain the advantages of conventional fully digital beamforming architectures, but partly reduce the implementation cost and power consumption. However, uplink and downlink radio channels may become non-reciprocal due to the different dimensions of Tx-Rx antenna arrays. In this paper, we analyze the reciprocity of radio channels observed by practical antenna patterns with different beamwidths. Two metrics are leveraged to measure spatial channel reciprocity based on 142 GHz outdoor channel measurement data and 28 GHz indoor ray-tracing simulation data. The power angular spectrum reciprocity of uplink and downlink radio channels does not hold when the beam pattern of base station Tx array becomes much narrower than that of Rx array. Meanwhile, it becomes increasingly likely that in the extreme case (e.g., significant beamwidth difference between Tx and Rx beam patterns), pronounced angle reciprocity can still be observed in the sparse channels with less multipath components.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-6
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2024
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Antenna arrays
  • Antennas
  • Asymmetric transceiver
  • Downlink
  • Millimeter wave communication
  • Radio frequency
  • spatial channel reciprocity
  • Transceivers
  • Uplink
  • uplink and downlink channels


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