Analysis of the redeposition of AuSn4 on Ni/Au contact pads when using SnPbAg, SnAg, and SnAgCu solders

T. Laurila*, V. Vuorinen, T. Mattila, J. K. Kivilahti

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    35 Citations (Scopus)


    Interfacial reactions between SnPbAg, SnAg, and SnAgCu solders and Ni/Au surface finish on printed wiring board and especially the redeposition of AuSn4 interinetallic compound have been investigated. The following major results were obtained. The first phase to form during soldering in the (SnPbAg)/Ni/Au and the (SnAg)/Ni/Au systems was Ni3Sn4. During the subsequent solid-state annealing, the redeposition of AuSn 4 as (Au,Ni)Sn4 occurred in both systems. This was explained with the help of the concept of local equilibrium and the corresponding ternary phase diagrams. It was concluded that the stabilizing effect of Ni on the (Au,Ni)Sn4 provided the driving force for the redeposition. Contrarily, when the solder alloy contained some Cu, the first intermetallic to form was (Cu,Ni,Au)4Sn5 and no redeposition of AuSn4 was observed. Thus, a very small addition of Cu to the Sn-rich solder alloys changed the behavior of the interconnection system completely. This behavior was explained thermodynamically by using Cu-Ni-Sn and Au-Cu-Sn ternary phase diagrams. The growth kinetics of the interfacial reaction products in the three systems was observed to be somewhat different. The reasons for the observed differences are also discussed.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)103-111
    Number of pages9
    JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2005
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • AuSn redeposition
    • Intermetallic reactions
    • Lead-free
    • Phase diagrams


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