Analysis of pandemic outdoor recreation and green infrastructure in Nordic cities to enhance urban resilience

Nora Fagerholm*, Karl Samuelsson, Salla Eilola, Matteo Giusti, Kamyar Hasanzadeh, Anna Kajosaari, Daniel Koch, Silviya Korpilo, Marketta Kyttä, Ann Legeby, Yu Liu, Søren Præstholm, Christopher Raymond, Tiina Rinne, Anton Stahl Olafsson, Stephan Barthel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Recent empirical research has confirmed the importance of green infrastructure and outdoor recreation to urban people’s well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, only a few studies provide cross-city analyses. We analyse outdoor recreation behaviour across four Nordic cities ranging from metropolitan areas to a middle-sized city. We collected map-based survey data from residents (n = 469–4992) in spring 2020 and spatially analyse green infrastructure near mapped outdoor recreation sites and respondents’ places of residence. Our statistical examination reveals how the interplay among access to green infrastructure across cities and at respondents’ residential location, together with respondents’ socio-demographic profiles and lockdown policies or pandemic restrictions, affects outdoor recreation behaviour. The results highlight that for pandemic resilience, the history of Nordic spatial planning is important. To support well-being in exceptional situations as well as in the long term, green infrastructure planning should prioritise nature wedges in and close to cities and support small-scale green infrastructure.
Original languageEnglish
Article number25
Number of pages14
Journalnpj Urban Sustainability
Publication statusPublished - 3 Oct 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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