Nanoparticles offer new possibilities for inner ear treatment as they can carry a variety of drugs, protein, and nucleic acids to inner ear. Nanoparticles are equipped with several functions such as targetability, immuno-transparency, biochemical stability, and ability to be visualized in vivo and in vitro. A group of novel peptides can be attached to the surface of nanoparticles that will enhance the cell entry, endosomal escape, and nuclear targeting. Eight different types of nanoparticles with different payload carrying strategies are available now. The transtympanic delivery of nanoparticles indicates that, depending on the type of nanoparticle, different migration pathways into the inner ear can be employed, and that optimal carriers can be designed according to the intended cargo. The use of nanoparticles as drug/gene carriers is especially attractive in conjunction with cochlear implantation or even as an inclusion in the implant as a drug/ gene reservoir.