An ontology to support flow system descriptions from design to operation of buildings

Ville Kukkonen*, Ali Kücükavci, Mikki Seidenschnur, Mads Holten Rasmussen, Kevin Michael Smith, Christian Anker Hviid

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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The interoperability of information from design to operations is an acknowledged challenge in the fields of architecture, engineering and construction (AEC). As a potential solution to the interoperability issues, there has been increasing interest in how linked data and semantic web technologies can be used to establish an extendable data model. Semantic web ontologies have been developed for the AEC domain, but an ontology for describing the energy and mass flow between systems and components is missing. This study proposes the Flow Systems Ontology (FSO) for describing the composition of flow systems, and their mass and energy flows. Two example models are expressed using FSO vocabulary. SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) queries are performed to further demonstrate and validate the ontology. The main contribution consists of developing FSO as an ontology complementary to the existing ontologies. Finally, the paper introduces a roadmap for future developments building on FSO.
Original languageEnglish
Article number104067
Number of pages15
JournalAutomation in Construction
Early online dateDec 2021
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Building information modeling
  • HVAC
  • Semantic web
  • Ontology
  • Linked data


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