An integrated ecosystem model for understanding infrastructure PPPs

Pekka Leviäkangas*, Lauri Ojala, Juuso Töyli

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


To overcome the seemingly chronic funding gap for public infrastructure investments, well over thousand Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) have been carried out around the world with varying success in terms of investor returns and socio-economic sustainability. This paper proposes an integrated model that assesses PPP projects at three levels of observation: i) the market; ii) the cash-flow of a project; and iii) the ecosystem around PPPs. The aim is to build a more holistic yet comprehensible framework that links these three levels to better understand PPPs especially in the context of infrastructure projects. It can also be modified to fit multiple contexts and used as a tool for analysing PPPs in their early stages. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-19
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Finance
  • Infrastructure
  • Investment
  • Project
  • Public-private partnership


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