Altered excitation-inhibition balance in the primary sensorimotor cortex to proprioceptive hand stimulation in cerebral palsy

Mia Illman*, Julia Jaatela, Jaakko Vallinoja, Timo Nurmi, Helena Mäenpää, Harri Piitulainen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Objective: Our objective was to clarify the primary sensorimotor (SM1) cortex excitatory and inhibitory alterations in hemiplegic (HP) and diplegic (DP) cerebral palsy (CP) by quantifying SM1 cortex beta power suppression and rebound with magnetoencephalography (MEG). Methods: MEG was recorded from 16 HP and 12 DP adolescents, and their 32 healthy controls during proprioceptive stimulation of the index fingers evoked by a movement actuator. The related beta power changes were computed with Temporal Spectral Evolution (TSE). Peak strengths of beta suppression and rebound were determined from representative channels over the SM1 cortex. Results: Beta suppression was stronger contralateral to the stimulus and rebound was weaker ipsilateral to the stimulation in DP compared to controls. Beta modulation strengths did not differ significantly between HP and the control group. Conclusions: The emphasized beta suppression in DP suggests less efficient proprioceptive processing in the SM1 contralateral to the stimulation. Their weak rebound further indicates reduced intra- and/or interhemispheric cortical inhibition, which is a potential neuronal mechanism for their bilateral motor impairments. Significance: The excitation-inhibition balance of the SM1 cortex related to proprioception is impaired in diplegic CP. Therefore, the cortical and behavioral proprioceptive deficits should be better diagnosed and considered to better target individualized effective rehabilitation in CP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-36
Number of pages12
JournalClinical Neurophysiology
Early online date30 Nov 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Beta modulation
  • Beta oscillations
  • Event-related desynchronization (ERD)
  • Event-related synchronization (ERS)
  • Motor cortex
  • Somatosensory cortex


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