Alcohol-impaired Walking in 16 Countries : A Theory-Based Investigation

Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios*, Ali Kemal Çelik, Ana Marti-Belda, Anna Włodarczyk, Daniel Demant, Duy Q. Nguyen-Phuoc, Elisabeth Rubie, Erkan Oktay, Gabriel Dorantes Argandar, J. E. Rod, Jean Carlos Natividade, Joonha Park, Jorge Tiago Bastos, Laura Martínez-Buelvas, Maria de Fátima Pereira da Silva, Mário Velindro, Matus Sucha, Mauricio Orozco-Fontalvo, Miguel Barboza-Palomino, Quan YuanRui Mendes, Rusdi Rusli, Samira Ramezani, Sergio A. Useche, Sibele Dias de Aquino, Takashi Tsubakita, Tatiana Volkodav, Tiina Rinne, Violeta Enea, Yonggang Wang, Mark King

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Alcohol is a global risk factor for road trauma. Although drink driving has received most of the scholarly attention, there is growing evidence of the risks of alcohol-impaired walking. Alcohol-impaired pedestrians are over-represented in fatal crashes compared to non-impaired pedestrians. Additionally, empirical evidence shows that alcohol intoxication impairs road-crossing judgements. Besides some limited early research, much is unknown about the global prevalence and determinants of alcohol-impaired walking. Understanding alcohol-impaired walking will support health promotion initiatives and injury prevention. The present investigation has three aims: (1) compare the prevalence of alcohol-impaired walking across countries; (2) identify international groups of pedestrians based on psychosocial factors (i.e., Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and perceptions of risk); and (3) investigate how segments of pedestrians form their intention for alcohol-impaired walking using the extended TPB (i.e. subjective norm, attitudes, perceived control, and perceived risk). A cross-sectional design was applied. The target behaviour question was “have you been a pedestrian when your thinking or physical ability (balance/strength) is affected by alcohol?” to ensure comparability across countries. Cluster analysis based on the extended TPB was used to identify groups of countries. Finally, regressions were used to predict pedestrians’ intentions per group. A total of 6,166 respondents (Age M(SD) = 29.4 (14.2); Males = 39.2%) completed the questionnaire, ranging from 12.6% from Russia to 2.2% from Finland. The proportion of participants who reported never engaging in alcohol-impaired walking in the last three months ranged from 30.1% (Spain) to 83.1% (Turkey). Four groups of countries were identified: group-1 (Czech Republic, Spain, and Australia), group-2 (Russia and Finland), group-3 (Japan), and group-4 (final ten countries including Colombia, China, and Romania). Pedestrian intentions to engage in alcohol- impaired walking are predicted by perceptions of risk and TPB-psychosocial factors in group-1 and group-4. Favourable TPB-beliefs and low perceived risk increased alcohol-impaired walking intentions. Conversely, subjective norms were not significant in group-2 and only perceived risk predicted intention in group-3. The willingness of pedestrians to walk when alcohol-impaired differs significantly across the countries in this study. Perceived risk was the only common predictor among the 16 countries.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106212
Number of pages12
JournalAccident Analysis and Prevention
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • active travel
  • Alcohol
  • multi-country study
  • substance use
  • Theory of Planned Behaviour
  • vulnerable road users


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