Airborne Wind Vector Scatterometer for Sea Surface Measurements

Juha Kainulainen, Sampo Salo, Janne Lahtinen, Guifre Molera Calves, Jaakko Seppänen, Jaan Praks, Teemu Hakala, Yuwei Chen, Juha Hyyppä, Martin Unwin, Philip Jales, Gerhard Ressler, Tania Casal, Josep Rosello

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This paper describes the development of an Airborne Wind Vector Scatterometer for low-resolution wind speed measurements. The scatterometer is designed to meet a wind speed accuracy requirement of 1 m/s. In this ad hoc and low-budget project, the development of the instrument exploited some already existing subsystems. The development started from the definition of the scientific system requirements and ended with two experimental flights for wind vector retrieval from three test areas in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. One of the flights was planned for a simultaneous overpass with the TDS-1 satellite that was conducting Global Navigations Satellite System – Reflectometry (GNSS-R) measurements. The results confirm the measurement capabilities of the GNSS-R technology and the desired 1 m/s wind speed accuracy of the scatterometer that was developed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2470 - 2476
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Issue number7
Early online date2019
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Wind speed
  • Sea measurements
  • Radar measurements
  • Spaceborne radar
  • Instruments
  • Extraterrestrial measurements
  • Airborne radar
  • radar remote sensing
  • reflectometry

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