Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) possess extraordinary physical and chemical properties. Thin films of randomly oriented SWCNTs have great potential in many opto-electro-mechanical applications. However, good adhesion of SWCNT films with a substrate material is pivotal for their practical use. Here, for the first time, we systematically investigate the adhesion properties of SWCNT thin films with commonly used substrates such as glass (SiO2), indium tin oxide (ITO), crystalline silicon (C-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), zirconium oxide (ZrO2), platinum (Pt), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and SWCNTs for self-adhesion using atomic force microscopy. By comparing the results obtained in air and inert Ar atmospheres, we observed that the surface state of the materials greatly contributes to their adhesion properties. We found that the SWCNT thin films have stronger adhesion in an inert atmosphere. The adhesion in the air can be greatly improved by a fluorination process. Experimental and theoretical analyses suggest that adhesion depends on the atmospheric conditions and surface functionalization.