Adaptive Loudness Compensation in Music Listening

Leonardo Fierro, Jussi Rämö, Vesa Välimäki

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The need for loudness compensation is a well known fact arising from the nonlinear behavior of human sound perception. Music and other sounds are mixed and mastered at a certain loudness level, usually louder than the level at which they are commonly played. This implies a change in the perceived spectral balance of the sound, which is largest in the low-frequency range. As the volume setting in music playing is decreased, a loudness compensation filter can be used to boost the bass appropriately, so that the low frequencies are still heard well and the perceived spectral balance is preserved. The present paper proposes a loudness compensation function derived from the standard equal-loudness-level contours and its implementation via a digital first-order shelving filter. Results of a formal listening test validate the accuracy of the proposed method.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 16th Sound & Music Computing Conference SMC 2019
PublisherSound and Music Computing Association
ISBN (Electronic)978-84-09-08518-7
Publication statusPublished - 2019
MoE publication typeA4 Conference publication
EventSound and Music Computing Conference - E.T.S.I. Telecomunicación, Malaga, Spain
Duration: 28 May 201931 May 2019
Conference number: 16

Publication series

NameProceedings of the Sound and Music Computing Conferences
ISSN (Electronic)2518-3672


ConferenceSound and Music Computing Conference
Abbreviated titleSMC
Internet address


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  • Leonardo Fierro

    Vesa Välimäki (Host) & Jussi Rämö (Host)

    4 Oct 201823 Jan 2019

    Activity: Hosting a visitor typesHosting an academic visitor

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