Adapting an agile manufacturing concept to the reference architecture model industry 4.0: A survey and case study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Research units

  • VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
  • Luleå University of Technology


Industry 4.0 architecture has been studied in a large number of publications in the fields of Industrial Internet of Things, Cyber Physical Production Systems, Enterprise Architectures, Enterprise Integration and Cloud Manufacturing. A large number of architectures have been proposed, but none of them has been adopted by a large number of research groups. Two major Industry 4.0 reference architectures have been developed by industry-driven initiatives, namely the German Industry 4.0 and the US-led Industrial Internet Consortium. These are the Reference Architecture Model Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet Reference Architecture, which are being standardized by the International Electrotechnical Commission and the Object Management Group, respectively. The first research goal of this article is to survey the literature on Industry 4.0 architectures in a factory context and assess awareness and compatibility with Reference Architecture Model Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet Reference Architecture. The second research goal is to adapt a previously proposed advanced manufacturing concept to Reference Architecture Model Industry 4.0. With respect to the first research goal, it was discovered that only a minority of researchers were aware of the said reference architectures and that in general authors offered no discussion about the compatibility of their proposals with any internationally standardized reference architecture for Industry 4.0. With respect to the second research goal, it was discovered that Reference Architecture Model Industry 4.0 was mature with respect to communication and information sharing in the scope of the connected world, that further standardization enabling interoperability of different vendors’ technology is still under development and that technology standardization enabling executable business processes between networked enterprises was lacking.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)147-160
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Industrial Information Integration
Publication statusPublished - 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • Cyber-physical production systems, Industrial Internet of Things, Industry 4.0, OPC UA, RAMI 4.0, Reference architecture

ID: 31090450