Adapted Beamforming : A Robust and Flexible Approach for Removing Various Types of Artifacts from TMS–EEG Data

Johanna Metsomaa*, Yufei Song, Tuomas P. Mutanen, Pedro C. Gordon, Ulf Ziemann, Christoph Zrenner, Julio C. Hernandez-Pavon

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded as response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be highly informative of cortical reactivity and connectivity. Reliable EEG interpretation requires artifact removal as the TMS-evoked EEG can contain high-amplitude artifacts. Several methods have been proposed to uncover clean neuronal EEG responses. In practice, determining which method to select for different types of artifacts is often difficult. Here, we used a unified data cleaning framework based on beamforming to improve the algorithm selection and adaptation to the recorded signals. Beamforming properties are well understood, so they can be used to yield customized methods for EEG cleaning based on prior knowledge of the artifacts and the data. The beamforming implementations also cover, but are not limited to, the popular TMS–EEG cleaning methods: independent component analysis (ICA), signal-space projection (SSP), signal-space-projection-source-informed-reconstruction method (SSP–SIR), the source-estimate-utilizing noise-discarding algorithm (SOUND), data-driven Wiener filter (DDWiener), and the multiple-source approach. In addition to these established methods, beamforming provides a flexible way to derive novel artifact suppression algorithms by considering the properties of the recorded data. With simulated and measured TMS–EEG data, we show how to adapt the beamforming-based cleaning to different data and artifact types, namely TMS-evoked muscle artifacts, ocular artifacts, TMS-related peripheral responses, and channel noise. Importantly, beamforming implementations are fast to execute: We demonstrate how the SOUND algorithm becomes orders of magnitudes faster via beamforming. Overall, the beamforming-based spatial filtering framework can greatly enhance the selection, adaptability, and speed of EEG artifact removal.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBrain Topography
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2024
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Artifacts
  • Beamforming
  • Electroencephalography
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation


Dive into the research topics of 'Adapted Beamforming : A Robust and Flexible Approach for Removing Various Types of Artifacts from TMS–EEG Data'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this