Active control of micrometer plasmon propagation in suspended graphene

Hai Hu*, Renwen Yu, Hanchao Teng, Debo Hu, Na Chen, Yunpeng Qu, Xiaoxia Yang, Xinzhong Chen, A. S. McLeod, Pablo Alonso-González, Xiangdong Guo, Chi Li, Ziheng Yao, Zhenjun Li, Jianing Chen, Zhipei Sun, Mengkun Liu, F. Javier García de Abajo, Qing Dai

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)
52 Downloads (Pure)


Due to the two-dimensional character of graphene, the plasmons sustained by this material have been invariably studied in supported samples so far. The substrate provides stability for graphene but often causes undesired interactions (such as dielectric losses, phonon hybridization, and impurity scattering) that compromise the quality and limit the intrinsic flexibility of graphene plasmons. Here, we demonstrate the visualization of plasmons in suspended graphene at room temperature, exhibiting high-quality factor Q~33 and long propagation length > 3 μm. We introduce the graphene suspension height as an effective plasmonic tuning knob that enables in situ change of the dielectric environment and substantially modulates the plasmon wavelength, propagation length, and group velocity. Such active control of micrometer plasmon propagation facilitates near-unity-order modulation of nanoscale energy flow that serves as a plasmonic switch with an on-off ratio above 14. The suspended graphene plasmons possess long propagation length, high tunability, and controllable energy transmission simultaneously, opening up broad horizons for application in nano-photonic devices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1465
JournalNature Communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 18 Mar 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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