Achieving Near-Ideal Subthreshold Swing in P-Type WSe2 Field-Effect Transistors

Fida Ali*, Hyungyu Choi, Nasir Ali*, Yasir Hassan, Tien Dat Ngo, Faisal Ahmed, Won Kyu Park, Zhipei Sun, Won Jong Yoo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


The pursuit of near-ideal subthreshold swing (SS) ≈ 60 mV dec−1 is a primary driving force to realize the power-efficient field-effect transistors (FETs). This challenge is particularly pronounced in 2D material-based FETs, where the presence of a large interface trap density (Dit) imposes limitations on electrostatic control, consequently escalating power consumption. In this study, the gate controllability of 2D FETs is systematically analyzed by fabricating pre-patterned van der Waals (vdW)-contacted p-FETs, varying the WSe2 channel thickness from monolayer to ten-layer. As a result, the channel thickness is optimized to achieve efficient gate controllability while minimizing Dit. The findings demonstrate negligible hysteresis and excellent subthreshold swing (SSmin) close to the thermal limit (≈60 mV dec−1), with a corresponding Dit of ≈1010 cm−2 eV−1, comparable to Dit values observed in state-of-the-art Si transistors, when utilizing WSe2 channel thicknesses ≥ five-layer. However, reducing the WSe2 channel thickness below the trilayer, SSmin (≈91 mV dec−1) deviates from the thermal limit, attributed to a comparatively higher Dit (≈1011 cm−2 eV−1), despite the still lower than values reported for surface-contacted 2D transistors. Furthermore, all devices exhibit consistent p-type characteristics, featuring a high ION/IOFF ratio, high mobility, and excellent electrical stability confirmed over several months.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAdvanced Electronic Materials
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 8 May 2024
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • p-type FETs
  • subthreshold swing
  • trap density
  • van der Waals contact
  • WSe thicknesses


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