A three-state received signal strength model for device-free localization

Ossi Kaltiokallio, Huseyin Yigitler*, Riku Jantti

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


The indoor radio propagation channel is typically modeled as a two-state time-variant process, where one of the states represents the channel when the environment is static, whereas the other state characterizes the medium when it is altered by people. In this paper, the aforementioned process is augmented with an additional state. It is shown that the changes in received signal strength are dictated by: 1) electronic noise, when a person is not present in the monitored area; 2) reflection, when a person is moving in the close vicinity of line-of-sight; and 3) shadowing, when a person is obstructing the line-of-sight component of the transmitter-receiver pair. Statistical and spatial models for the three states are derived, and the models are empirically validated. Based on the models, a link line monitoring system is designed, which aims to, first, estimate the temporal state of the channel using a hidden Markov model, and, second, track a person using a particle filter. The results suggest that the presented system outperforms other state-of-The-Art systems in terms of localization accuracy while increasing size of the link's sensing region.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7919217
Pages (from-to)9226-9240
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Device-free localization
  • Indoor radio propagation channel
  • Received signal strength
  • Temporal fading

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