A sustainable and highly efficient fossil-free carbon from olive stones for emerging contaminants removal from different water matrices

Osamah J. Al-sareji*, Ruqayah Ali Grmasha, Mónika Meiczinger, Raed A. Al-Juboori, Viola Somogyi, Csilla Stenger-Kovács, Khalid S. Hashim

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
29 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The olive stone is a large waste product of the olive oil extraction industry. The present study investigates developing activated carbon from olive stone waste (OSAC) to remove pharmaceuticals from water. Different temperatures and olive stone: KOH ratios were studied. The OSAC produced at 750 °C and 1:3 ratio was found to have the highest porosity and surface area and was tested in the adsorption process. Diclofenac and ciprofloxacin were selected as model contaminants. The adsorption process was optimized with regards to OSAC dosage, pH, temperature, and initial concentration of adsorbate. The OSAC was found to be effective for a wide pH range (2–11) with an optimum dosage of 1 g/L at 25 °C. The pharmaceuticals were almost completely removed in 75 min. The adsorption was endothermic and followed first-order kinetics with physical mechanisms such as electrostatic possibly being the main driver. The optimum conditions were applied to test the removal of diclofenac and ciprofloxacin in synthetic water, lake water (Lake Balaton, Hungary) and secondary wastewater for seven cycles. There was little difference between the removal of the tested water matrices highlighting the potency of OSAC as an adsorbent for pharmaceutical removal in industrial applications. The removal dropped from >99% for the first cycle to 20–30% for the seventh cycle.

Original languageEnglish
Article number141189
Number of pages11
JournalChemosphere
Volume351
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • Activated carbon
  • Agricultural by-products
  • Biochar
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Diclofenac
  • Waste

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