A Survey of Static Formal Methods for Building Dependable Industrial Automation Systems

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Article


Research units

  • Auckland University of Technology
  • Luleå University of Technology
  • NOVA University Lisbon
  • St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO)
  • Instituto de Desenvolvimento de Novas Tecnologias - UNINOVA


Industrial automation systems (IAS) need to be highly dependable; they should not merely function as expected but also do so in a reliable, safe, and secure manner. Formal methods are mathematical techniques that can greatly aid in developing dependable systems and can be used across all phases of the system development life cycle (SDLC), including requirements engineering, system design and implementation, verification and validation (testing), maintenance, and even documentation. This state-of-the-art survey reports existing formal approaches for creating more dependable IAS, focusing on static formal methods that are used before a system is completely implemented. We categorize surveyed works based on the phases of the SDLC, allowing us to identify research gaps and promising future directions for each phase.


Original languageEnglish
Article number8678839
Pages (from-to)3772-3783
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2019
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal

    Research areas

  • Formal methods, Formal verification, IEC 61131, IEC 61499, Industrial automation systems (IAS), Industrial control

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